FourFortyFour South Flower Building

Fourfortyfour South Flower Building
  1. About the FourFortyFour South Flower Building in Los Angeles
    1. Prizes & Awards
  2. Architect and team
  3. Architectural style
  4. Spaces and uses
  5. Structure and materials

The FourFortyFour South Flower Building is a Modern Style skyscraper designed by AC Martin & Associates and built between 1978 and 1981 in Los Angeles, CA.

FourFortyFour South Flower Building is not the only name you might know this building by though. It is common for companies to want to attach their names to iconic buildings when they move in, or for the general public to come up with nicknames, and this one is no exception. The building has changed names several times over the years, and is also known as:

  • Wells Fargo Building between 1981 and 2003.
  • Citigroup Center between 2003 and 2016.
  • 444 Plaza Building.

Its precise street address is 444 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, CA. You can also find it on the map here.

In 2012 the FourFortyFour South Flower Building was awarded with the BOMA Earth Award .

The building underwent a major restoration in 2016. The architect commissioned to undertake this restoration was Gensler.

Building's timeline

Construction begins
Wells Fargo Building
Citigroup Center
years ago
  1. 2016 - The main lobby and the common areas throughout the building were renovated. Additionally, the entire sixth floor was dedicated to an advanced Workplace Innovation Lab. Taking advantage of the stepped design of the tower, the first of the so-called "sky gardens" was created, providing outdoor spaces for the enjoyment of the tenants. The architect in charge was Gensler.

Architect and team

AC Martin & Associates was the architecture firm in charge of the architectural design.

AC Martin & Associates was in charge of the architectural design, however, architecture is a complex discipline involving many professionals from different fields, without whom this building would have not been possible. We will surely be leaving out a lot of names here, but here is a list of the people we do know also played their part in making the FourFortyFour South Flower Building a reality:

  • AECOM Hunt Tishman as the Main Contractor
  • Rockefeller Group as the Main Developer
  • Marc Di Suvero, Michael Heizer, Frank Stella, Robert Rauschenberg, and Bruce Nauman Augustine Kofie as the collaborating Artist

Architectural Style

The FourFortyFour South Flower Building can be categorized as a Modern Style building.

The modern style, also referred to as Modernism in the U.S. (distinct from the European Modernist movement), is characterized by minimal ornamentation, clean lines, and the use of materials such as glass, steel, and concrete. This style prioritizes functionality and the honest expression of materials and structure.

Modern architecture in the U.S. follows many principles of the International Style but with slightly less rigid rules than those of the purist European International Stylists like Le Corbusier, or even those who imported the style to the U.S. like Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius.

Modern skyscrapers often feature expansive glass curtain walls, open floor plans, and focus on volume over mass. This blend of innovation and simplicity defined the modern skyscraper, creating the sleek, functional urban landscapes prominent in mid-20th-century U.S. architecture.

The FourFortyFour South Flower Building was completed in 1981. by then, Modernism had already past its maturity, and other styles, such as Postmodernism or Brutalism were already challenging its principles.

By their own nature, the Modern and International Styles can still look current, even in contemporary buildings. So that's not to say the FourFortyFour South Flower Building appeared old or outdated when it was completed, but AC Martin & Associates certainly did not take many risks when it came to choosing the design style. This made the building look more "classic" and integrated within the city's architecture.

Spaces & Uses

The FourFortyFour South Flower Building reaches an architectural height of 623ft (190m). It has a total of 51 floors, 48 above ground and 3 basements, served by 26 elevators. In total, it has a built-up area of 1,071,277 sqf (99,525m2) offering 914,339 sqf (84,945m2) of usable space.

In regards to parking space, the building has a total of 600 spots available, which roughly equals 13 spots per floor (above ground), or one parking spot per every 1,528 sqf (142m2) of usable space.

Ever since opening its doors to the public in 1981, the FourFortyFour South Flower Building has mainly been used as Commercial space.

623ft (190m)
3 basements

Materials & Structure

The FourFortyFour South Flower Building uses a frame structure made of steel columns and concrete slabs.

A frame structure uses a combination of beams and columns to sustain the building's weight. The walls in this case are non-load bearing, which allows for more flexibility when distributing the interior spaces.

The facade is non-load bearing either, as it is common in frame structure type buildings.

From an aesthetic point of view, the facade features a curtain wall with dark-tinted glass and lighter spandrels, creating a repetition of horizontal layers that stack on top of each other.

As the building grows a series of setbacks give the building its unique silhouette.